GLOSSARY OF TERMS
The glossary of terms and the glossary of relationships contain Latin terms and types of relations in Greek used in the search fields of the database. Both glossaries will be updated, if necessary, each time a new version of the database will be uploaded.
1. PERSON - GENDERΆλλο/Other
2. PERSON - ANCESTRYΆγνωστη/Unknown
3. PERSON - GENUSArmeniensis
4. PERSON - ORIGINThese are places of origin outside Crete. An exception is the designation "from Crete" (de Creta) or "from Chandakas" (de Candida) (a designation that often also means generally from Crete).
Accon: Accra (now Akko), Israel
Alexandria: Alexandria, Egypt
Andre: island of Andros(?), Greece
Anea: Anea (now Anya, south of New Ephesus), Asia Minor, Turkey
Arimino: Rimini, Italy
Barcelona: Barcelona, Spain
Barcola: Barcola, Trieste, Italy
Brundizo: Brindisi, Italy
Caifas: Kafas (now Feodosia), Crimea, Russia
Calamata: Kalamata, Greece
Calimno: island of Kalimnos, Greece
Campagnia: Campania, Italy
Candida: Chandax (now Irakleio) or Crete, Greece
Caprulae: Caorle, Italy
Carpatho: island of Karpathow, Greece
Catania: Catania, Italy
Chio: island of Chios, Greece
Clugia: Chioggia, Italy
Constantinopolis: Constantinople (now Istanbul), Turkey
Corono: Koroni, Greece
Corphu: island of Corfu, Greece
Crema: Crema, Italy
Creta; Crete, Greece
extraneus: foreigner (form outside of Crete)
Gallina: Gallina, Siena, Italy
Iadera: Zara (now Zadar), Croatia
Ianua: Genova, Italy
Ierusalem: Jerusalem, Israel
Insula: Lesina (now Hvar), Istria, Croatia
Macrea: Makre (now Fethiye), Asia Minor, Turkey
Maiorica: Majorca, Spain
Mexina: Messina, Sicily, Italy
Milo: island of Melos, Greece
Monovasia: Monemvasia, Greece
Morea:Morias (Peloponnese), Greece
Namphio: island of Anafi, Greece
Nigroponte: Euboea, Greece
Nixea: island of Naxos, Greece
Ovederzo: Oderzo, Treviso, Italy
Padua: Padova, Italy
Panzanno: Ponzano, Veneto, Italy
Pellestrina: Pellestrina, Venice, Italy
Philadelfia: Filadelfia (now Alasehir), Asia Minor, Turkey
Pisa: Pisa, Italy
Portu Liniagu: Legnago, Verona, Italy
Ragusa: Ragusa (now Dubrovnik), Croatia
Rodi: island of Rhodes, Greece
Salonichi: Thessaloniki, Greece
Samo:: island of Samos
Sancta Herini: island of Santorini
Saragosa: Siracusa, Sicily, Italy
Satalia:Attaleia (now Antalya), Asia Minor, Turkey
Serfine: island of Serifos
Sifano: island of Sifnos, Greece
Stimpalia: island of Astypalaia, Greece
Tervisio: Treviso, Italy
Theologo:[Aghios] Theologos (now Selçuk/Ayasoluk), Asia Minor Turkey
Tine: island of Tinos, Greece
Valencia: Valencia, Spain
Veneciae: Venice, Italy
Verona: Verona, Italy
Zea: island of Kea, Greece
5. PERSON – PERSONAL STATUSΆγνωστο/Unknown
Απελεύθερος/Feedman: a villein or slave who has been freed (a transitional status that usually characterizes the first generation of the freedmen)
Ελεύθερος/Free: a person without dependency on other person or institution
Εξαρτημένος/Dependent: a person dependent on other person or institution
6. PERSON – SOCIAL STATUSArchon/Άρχων: Person of Greek origin with a non-institutional “nobility” deriving from the Byzantine times. Only if the term is mentioned in the source.
Archondopulo/Αρχοντόπουλος: Person of Greek origin with a non-institutional “nobility” deriving from the Byzantine times. Only if the term is mentioned in the source.
Burgensis: Person who resides in a city and usually possesses urban property (burgesia), while he deals systematically with trade. Only if the term is mentioned in the source.
Clericus: Priest regardless of dogma and position he holds in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.
Feudatarius/ria: Holder for life and with the right to inherit a fief of any size, which he has received from the Venetian state.
Francus: Freed villein or slave, when this is directly stated or clearly inferred. The term is also sometimes used to denote the free farmer in general.
Miles: Owner of a fief of a cavallaria (knight). Only if the term is mentioned in the source .
Monacus/ca: Monk of any dogma.
Nobilis: A person who bears the "informal" in the 13th century title of noble. He can be a feudal lord at the same time.
Officialis: A person holding a salaried permanent or limited term public office regardless of hierarchy.
Officialis Ecclesie: A person holding a salaried or unpaid, permanent or limited term, ecclesiastical office regardless of hierarchy.
Pedes: Owner of a fief the size of a serventaria (sergens). Only if the term is mentioned in the source ).
Serviens: A person who provides paid military service for a fief along with or instead of the feudal lord.
Villanus: A person, usually resident of a village and peasant, dependent on another person or institution. Based on its dependence, villeins are further categorized as follows.
Villanus agrafus: Dependent person, who temporarily does not belong to a fief or a feudal lord until his final concession.
Villanus comunis: Dependent person, who belongs to the state and is either granted to a feudal lord or an institution, or works and is tied to state lands.
Villanus Ecclesie: Dependent person, who belongs to the Church (archdiocese or diocese) and works and is tied to ecclesiastical lands.
Villanus extra feudum: Dependent person, who does not belong to a fief, but to the feudal lord, who can dispose of it and use it as he wishes.
Villanus feudi: Dependent person, who is tied to the land and belongs to a fief, regardless of its owner.
Villanus monasterii: Dependent person, who belongs to a monastery and works on its lands.
Επαγγελματίας/professional: Self-employed or salaried person (outside the state mechanism), usually in urban but also in rural areas, and who declares a specific capacity as a professional.
Επιχειρηματίας/entrepreneur:A person who does not identify himself or herself as such, but based on the information provided by the sources, proves to be engaged systematically (and not occasionally) in commercial and business activities (commercial transactions, investments of any kind, financing for commercial activity, loans , shipowners, etc.). He does not belong to the category of professionals, some of whom could also be considered entrepreneurs. This social group also includes the merchant, i.e. a person who is engaged in any form of trade (sea or land, local or supra-local, retail or wholesale, small or large) with various roles. This social group also includes shipowners and captains, who played an active role in conducting trade, not only indirectly but also directly. Each special role of all the above, which is explicitly stated in the source, is reflected in the field "Occupation".
7. PERSON - TITLECivis cretensis
De domo maiori
8. PERSON - OFFICEAbbas: Abbot (usually, but not only, of an Orthodox monastery).
Admiratus Candide: Harbormaster of Candia.
Admiratus Chanee:Harbormaster of Chania.
Advocator Candide/Crete: Public lawyer, public prosecutor.
Anzianus comunis: Title(?) of members of the Council of the Senate of Crete.
Archiepiscopus Crete: Latin archbishop of Crete.
Bullator pani: Who controls the production and the sale of the bread.
Caloierus: Orthodox monk.
Camerarius Chanee: Treasurer (head of public treasury) of Chania.
Camerarius Crete: Treasurer (head of public treasury) of Crete in the city of Candia.
Camerarius Rethimi: Treasurer (head of public treasury) of Rethimno.
Cancellarius: Chancellor (head of the ducal chancellery).
Cancellarius Chanee: Chancellor of Chania (head of the chancellery of the local rector).
Cancellarius Crete: Chancellor of Crete (head of the ducal chancellery in Candia).
Cancellarius Sithie: Chancellor of Sitia (head of the chancellery of the local rector).
Canonicus: Priest, member of the clergy of a Latin cathedral or parish church and holder of an estate.
Cantor cretensis: Priest of the Latin Church in Crete and usually the leader of the choir.
Capellanus: Priest in a catholic chapel.
Capellanus maior: High priest in a catholic chapel.
Capitaneus: Military officer with various duties.
Capitaneus de nocte: Chief official in the police office.
Capitaneus galearum: Chief of a convoy of Venetian military galleys. The Venetian military navy was organized in convoys according to geographical areas, such as the "fleet of Romania" in the Aegean Sea.
Capitaneus galee: Captain of a commercial galley.
Caput et divisor: Head of the distribution of the fiefs to those who had participated in the Venetian colonization of Crete during the first half of the thirteenth century.
Castellanus: Castellan (military and administrative leader of the castle and its region).
Castellanus Corone: Castellan of Koroni (the highest official of the Venetian colony of Koroni).
Clericus: Latin clergyman/priest.
Comerclarius: Official responsible for imposition and collection of commercial duties.
Consiliarius Chanee: Councilor of Chania, member of the local government.
Consiliarius Crete: Councilor of Crete in Candia, member of the central government of Crete.
Consiliarius Rethimi: Councilor of Rethimno, member of the local government.
Consilium maius: Great Council of Crete (Candia).
Custos: Guard in various state positions mainly in the urban area, guardian of animals or other goods in the rural area.
Custos porte maris Candide: Guard of the sea gate of Candia.
Decanus: Office of a catholic clergyman among the hierarchy of a church with specific duties.
Dominus de nocte: Police official in the cities of Crete.
Duca Crete: Duke of Crete, the highest Venetian officer and head of the central government of Crete.
Episcopus: Catholic bishop.
Gastaldus: Clerk in state office.
Gastaldus ripariorum: Clerk in the service of the responsible officers for the control of the port and the shores.
Iconomus monasterii: Financial manager of a monastery.
Iudex: Judge, member of the ducal court in Candia.
Iudex arbitrarius: Judge arbitral, appointed by private agreement between the parties, who undertake to accept his proposal for the settlement of their dispute.
Iudex prosopii: Judge, member of the judiciary that adjudicated cases of private civil law and especially real estate disputes, which involved Greeks and Jews, as well as Latins.
Iudex proprii: Judge, member of the judiciary that adjudicated cases of private civil law (real estate disputes, dowries, fines, etc.).
Iustitiarius: Official who controls the market (prices, quality of products, weights and measures, etc.) in the cities of Crete.
Legatus: Representative of a state or ecclesiastical official.
Medicus: Doctor employed in the service of state official or local council members.
Mensurator: Civil servant who estimates the weight and the volume of products for sale or delivery, based on official measures and weights.
Messeta: Civil servant responsible for the collection of the messetaria or misseteria, i.e. the duty over any commercial transaction.
Miles: Feudatory, holder of a big fief (cavallaria) and member of the feudal army as knight.
Ministerialis curie cretensis: Civil servant in the central ducal chancellery in Candia.
Notarius castri: Notary of a castle, in the service of a castellan.
Notarius curie (palacii) Candide: Notary in the central ducal chancellery in Candia.
Notarius iudicatus proprii: Notary in the service of the iudices proprii.
Notarius iusticiariorum: Notary in the service of the iusticiarii of Candia.
Nuncius: Institutional emissary.
Officialis catasticorum: Civil servant in the office of the land registers.
Officialis salis: Civil servant in the office that controls the production and the commerce of the salt.
Papas: Orthodox priest.
Partitor comunis: Public “distributor” for resolving real estate disputes.
Patriarcha Constantinopolis: Catholic patriarch of Constantinople.
Pesator: Weigher, employee of the service (statera comunis) responsible for the measures and weights, as well as the official weighing of the products.
Plebanus: Catholic priest in a parish church.
Ponderator farine: Flour weigher.
Portolanus porte maioris Candide / portarius ad portam magnam Candide: Civil servant, responsible for the opening and the closing of the central gate of the walls of Candia.
Prebendarius: Catholic priest (canonicus) who has been granted the income (prebenda) from the exploitation of a specific real estate belonging to the Latin Church (church with property, rural land and villages, etc.).
Preco (curie cretensis): Herald in the service of the ducal chancellery of Candia.
Prepositus: Senior ecclesiastical official (clergyman or layman) of the Latin Church, hierarchically immediately after a high official, such as archbishop, bishop, or abbot of a monastery, and replaces him when he is absent or vacant.
Presbiter: Priest of catholic and rarely orthodox rite.
Primicerius Sancti Marci: High priest of the ducal chapel of St. Mark in Candia.
Prior/Priora: Abbot or abbess in a catholic monastery.
Protopapas: Orthodox priest, appointed by Venice as head of all orthodox priest of each administrative department of Crete.
Protopsalti: Orthodox priest, appointed by Venice as assistant or deputy of Protopapas.
Rector Candide/Crete: Rector of Crete (Candia). The Councilor of Crete who replaces the Duke of Crete when he is absent or unable to perform duties, or when the office is vacant.
Rector Chanee: Rector of Chania, the high official in the department of Chania.
Rector Rethimi: Rector of Rethimno, the high official in the department of Chania.
Riparius/Riparius curie cretensis: Civil servant responsible for the control of the arrival and the departure of ships to a port.
Rogatus: Member of the Council of Senate of Crete (Candia).
Sapiens: Sapient, member of the Cretan Great Council or the Senate, who is elected as a member of a special committee in order to introduce a topic for discussion and express opinion.
Scriba camere: Scribe in the office of public treasury.
Scriba castri: Scribe in the service of the castellan.
Scriba comercli et messetarie: Scribe in the office for the imposition and the collection of duties on the commercial transactions.
Scriba curie (palacii) Candide: Scribe, usually a notary, in the ducal chancellery of Candia.
Scriba curie vicarii: Scribe in the service of the deputy of the catholic archbishop of Crete.
Scriba dominorum de nocte: Scribe in the police office.
Scriba et ponderator farine comunis: Scribe in the office for the control and the sale of the state flour.
Scriba iusticie: Scribe in the office of the ducal court.
Scriba presopii:Scribe in the office of the judges of “presopii”.
Scriba quinque de pace: Scribe in the office of the "justices of the peace", i.e. the judges who adjudicated disputes without murder.
Sindicus: Representative sent with a special purpose on behalf of the state, the Church or specific social groups. In some cases, it is identified with the role of ambassador (ambaxator).
Superstes portus Candide: Head of the port of Candia.
Thesaurarius: Treasurer of a monastery.
Vicarius: "Representative", who replaces an ecclesiastical official, usually archbishop or bishops or even the Latin patriarch of Constantinople, in case of absence or inability to perform duties.
Vicarius generalis: “General representative”, who replaces an ecclesiastical official, usually the archbishop, in case of vacancy.
9. PERSON - OCCUPATIONThe term "occupation" means any professional capacity, which is directly stated by a person or arises indirectly. Α person may have more than one such capacity, since a profession was not always full-time.
Barcarius: owner of a small boat (barca) and/or its captain
Bordonarius: who cares, loads and guides transport animals
Calderarius: cauldron maker
Caligarius / calegarius: shoemaker
Caniparius:cellarer, responsible for the provisioning of food and drink of a house or a monastery, or owner or/and manager of a wine cellar
Capellarius: cap maker
Capitaneus: captain of a boat
Caretarius: driver of carriage
Casarolus: cheese seller
Cassellarius: chest maker
Cimator: cloth shearer
Corizarius: shields and belts maker
Draperius: cloth trader
Factor vantorum: glove maker
Frenarius: bridle maker
Galeotus: member of a galley crew
Iardinarius: gardener, who grows fruit trees
Iuparius: skirt or coat tailor
Laborator (cultivator): Person who lives in the city and its suburbs and, according to our sources, it is explicitly stated that he cultivates / "works" (laboro, laborat) land. Also, a person who contracts with a landowner and undertakes to move from the city to a village and cultivate land for a specific period. Villeins and free farmers living in the villages are not characterized as laboratores.
Marescalcus: farrier and veterinary
Medicus cirologus: surgeon
Medicus fisicus: physician
Mercator: Merchant, either when it is described as such at source or when this quality is clearly inferred from its role
Pancogolus, Panicoculus: bread seller, baker
Papas: orthodox priest
Patronus navis: shipowner
Pelliparius/pellizarius: Person who deals with the processing, cutting and refining of leather, as well as the processing or sewing of fur (merchant of leather / leather tailor / furrier)
Presbiter: catholic priest
Scarpentarius: carpenter (specialized in large constructions such as carts, wooden machines or boats)
Scriba/scribanus: scribe, secretary
Scutellarius: dish or cup potter
Serviens:salaried soldier in the service of a feudatory
Spatarius: sword maker
Specialis: pharmacist, seller of medicines and herbs
Stationarius: merchant with a commercial store (statio)
Storarius: mat maker
Tabernarius: tavern keeper or tavern employed
Venderigolus/la: vendor, seller
Vilicus: foreman, mainly of agricultural property
10. SOURCE – CATEGORYAffirmation: Βεβαίωση
Apprenticeship contract: Σύμβαση μαθητείας
Bill of exchange: Συναλλαγματική
Colleganza Concession: Παραχώρηση
Court decision: Δικαστική απόφαση
Decision of Consilium Maius
Decision of Consilium Minus
Decision of Consilium Rogatorum
Decision of Quarantia (gratia)
Decision/Letter of Doge: Απόφαση/Επιστολή δόγη
Decision/Letter of Duke: Απόφαση/Επιστολή δούκα
Episcopal document: Επισκοπικό έγγραφο
Monastic document: Μοναστηριακό έγγραφο
Papal document: Παπικό έγγραφο
Partnership contract: Societas
Registration of a burgesia (urban fief): Καταχώριση βουργεζίας
Registration of a fief: Καταχώριση φέουδου
Registration of a villain: Καταχώριση βιλάνου
Ship chartering: Ναύλωση
Varnitio Withdrawal/Determination: Varnitio Ανάληψη/Καθορισμός
11. PLACE - TYPEBalneum: Bath or water collection area for various uses
Burgum: Suburb outside the city walls
Casale: Village as a settlement along with its land
Casale comunis: State village
Casaletum: Small village (smaller than a village)
Castellania: Administrative district with a castle as its center and a castellan as its head. It encloses the villages of its region.
Castellum: Castle as a military fortification, seat of the castellan and center of the castellania. Part of the city walls. Fortified settlement.
Civitas: The city inside the walls
Contrata: General term used to define a district of a city or a region in the countryside.
Domus: Residence in the general sense, but also a guest house of catholic Orders. Ecclesia: Orthodox or catholic church
Episcopatus: Bishopric as geographical area
Fontana: Fountain in urban and rural space
Fossa: Ditch or, in some cases, a stream
Locus: General term, which can define either a place name on the outskirts of a village or town (microtoponymy), or a village. In the Database, it is also used as a general term when there is no specification of a topographic name in the source.
Millicia/cavallaria: The area of a big fief (only if it is stated as such in our sources).
Monasterium: Orthodox or catholic monastery
Partes: General term for large regions, non-identified with administrative or other formal units
Portus: Port, either an organized or a small regional city port
Puncta: Cape with its wider geographical area as a small peninsula
Risa: Natural boundary between non-formal geographical regions, such as the western and eastern part of Crete, or other smaller areas. Usually certain geophysical features, such as a mountain or a river, determined this limit.
Salina: Salt pan
Scala: Natural boundary between non-formal geographical regions, such as the western and eastern part of Crete, or formal regions, such as the four administrative department. Usually certain geophysical features, such as a mountain or a river, determined this limit.
Sexterium: Geographical unit from a total of six such in which the administrative department of Candia was divided. The Venetian authorities used this unit in the land registers (Catastici feudorum) of the area to define a region with the fiefs it included, or in other documents to simply determine more precisely the geographical location of a place.
Territorium: Administrative department, one of the four that Crete was divided.
Turma: Non-administrative, geographical department, remnant of the Byzantine unit of “turma” (τούρμα), in which the departments of Crete were divided, except that of Candia. It is identified with Castellania and is used, like the sexteria in the department of Candia, in the local land registers to define a region with the fiefs it included, or in other documents to simply determine more accurately the geographical location of a place.
Turris: Tower, either as part of the fortification of the walls of a city or a castle, or as a fortified house in a village or in the countryside.